What is the effect of adding citric acid to feed
Citric acid is formed by carboxylation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of the body, and participates in the metabolism of sugar, fat and protein in the body. Natural citric acid exists in the bones, muscles, and blood of plants (such as lemons, citrus, pineapples, etc.) and animals, and artificially synthesized by fermentation of sugary substances such as sugar, molasses, starch, and grapes. Adding citric acid to compound feed can disinfect and prevent mildew, and prevent salmonella from infecting animal feed. Animals eating citric acid can reduce the proliferation of pathogens, inhibit the production of toxic metabolites, and increase animal stress.
(1) Adding citric acid to the diet can improve the palatability of the diet. Citric acid can directly stimulate the taste bud cells in the mouth, increase the secretion of saliva, play the role of flavoring agent, enhance the appetite of animals, thereby increasing the feed intake of animals. Adding citric acid in the diet can reduce the pH of the diet. After the animal eats, the acidity in the stomach decreases, and the inactive pepsinogen is converted into active pepsin, or directly stimulates the secretion of digestive enzymes; in addition, the acidic chyme After entering the small intestine, it stimulates the small intestine to secrete enterogastrone, which reflexively inhibits gastric peristalsis, delays the time of gastric emptying, prolongs the time for chyme to pass through the intestinal tract, and promotes the digestion of nutrients.
(2) Promote the health of intestinal flora
Organic acids can enter the cell wall of bacteria, causing pH gradient changes inside and outside the bacteria, inhibiting bacterial growth. The suitable pH for the growth of several common pathogenic bacteria is neutral and slightly alkaline. For example, the suitable pH for Escherichia coli is 6.0-8.0, and the suitable pH for Streptococcus is 6.0-7.5, while probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria are suitable for reproduction in an acidic environment. Citric acid reduces the pH in the gastrointestinal tract, and probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria in the intestinal tract obtain good growth conditions, thereby maintaining the normal balance of microbial flora in the digestive tract of livestock and poultry.
(3) Enhance the body's anti-stress and immune ability
Immunocompetent cells, namely T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, play an immune surveillance role on the body. Studies have shown that feeding broiler chickens with citric acid can increase the density of immunocompetent cells, keep chickens in a better immune state, inhibit the reproduction of intestinal pathogenic bacteria and prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases.
(4) as antifungal agent and antioxidant
Citric acid is a natural preservative. Because citric acid can reduce the pH of the feed, the proliferation of harmful microorganisms and the production of toxins are inhibited, and it has obvious anti-mildew effect. As a synergist of antioxidants, the combination of citric acid and antioxidants can improve the antioxidant effect, prevent or delay feed oxidation, improve the stability of compound feed and prolong the storage period.