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what are the vitamin additives in chicken feed?

View: 19 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-12-14 Origin: site

what are the vitamin additives in chicken feed

Vitamins  are indispensable special nutrients in the body. Most vitamins cannot be synthesized by the chicken body and need to be provided by the feed. Vitamins have their special functions, and their deficiency can cause different symptoms. According to the different hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of vitamins, they can be divided into water-soluble vitamins (B vitamins, vitamin C) and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K).

①Vitamin A. Vitamin A is a type of fat-soluble vitamin, including retinol, retinol, retinoic acid, etc. It is an essential substance for chickens to maintain visual function, maintain the integrity of mucous membrane structures such as the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and intestinal tract, and bone growth. The minimum requirement of vitamin A for chickens is generally 1000~5000 international units/kg, which mainly comes from animal feeds such as cod liver oil, while plant feeds such as vegetables, corn, carrots, etc. contain provitamin A, which can be transformed in chickens for vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness. Chicks will suffer from malaise, growth retardation, gradual disappearance, dry eye syndrome, and decreased resistance. Together, it can seriously cause blindness. The egg production rate of the hen decreased, the semen quality of the rooster decreased, and the quality of the breeding eggs decreased. Excessive vitamin A (more than 50 times) can easily cause chicken poisoning and neurological symptoms. Vitamin A is easily oxidized and destroyed in the air. It should be noted that beans should be fried before use. Full price ingredients should not be stored for a long time, and attention should be paid to prevent mildew. When vitamin A is deficient, it can be taken orally with three times the normal vitamin A requirement, such as cod liver oil, vitamin AD3, etc., and the effect is generally faster.

② B vitamins. B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins with a wide variety, mainly including the following.

a. Vitamin B1: also known as thiamine, anti-neuritis vitamin, and anti-beriberi vitamin, participates in the synthesis of acetylcholine in chickens and participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates. General feed can meet the needs, but when the thiamine in the feed is destroyed, it can cause deficiency. Vitamin B1 deficiency can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction. The typical symptom of chicks is that the head is bent to the back in a "stargazing" posture, accompanied by poor growth and development, reduced feed intake, disheveled feathers, weak legs, and unsteady gait. The cockscombs of adult chickens are often blue-purple, and neurological symptoms gradually appear later, and severe systemic failure dies.

b. Vitamin B2: also known as riboflavin, participates in energy and protein metabolism, and participates in redox reactions. Generally, the content of animal feed and green feed is very high, and it is not easy to lack, but it is easily destroyed by factors such as alkali and light. The typical symptoms of chicks with vitamin B2 deficiency are swollen heel joints, inward bending of toes, and even complete numbness and paralysis of legs (claw paralysis); when adult chickens lack vitamin B2, it will cause the quality of eggs to decline and affect the fertilization rate.

c. Vitamin B6: is the general term for pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, and participates in the synthesis and metabolism of amino acids, and in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It is abundant in grains, beans, and seed husks. Chicks are prone to deficiency, and when lacking, developmental obstruction, hair loss, dermatitis, and sometimes neurological symptoms will occur, and the egg production rate of adult chickens will decrease, and the hatching rate will decrease.

d. Vitamin B12: Also called cyanocobalamin and cobalamin, it participates in the biosynthesis of nucleic acid and protein in the body, and is related to the function of vitamin B11. Generally, animal feed and microbial fermented feed are rich in vitamin content, and chickens need to supplement vitamin B12 in feed. Deficiency causes anemia and poor growth and development.

③Vitamin C. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, participates in redox reactions and other metabolisms in the body, participates in the synthesis of collagen, maintains the normal structure of the intercellular substance, and has detoxification and antioxidant effects. Under normal circumstances, the feed can meet the vitamin C needs of chickens, but when heat stress, disease, etc. occur, vitamin C needs to be supplemented. Vitamin C deficiency is prone to scurvy, accompanied by poor growth and development, edema and other symptoms.

④ Vitamin D. Vitamin D, also known as anti-rickets vitamin, is a fat-soluble vitamin. The two main forms are ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). The main physiological function of vitamin D is to regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The general feed contains less vitamin D, and the calcium content in hay is high. When vitamin D is deficient, the osteogenesis of chicks is hindered, and rickets and rickets appear, accompanied by dysplasia and growth retardation; adult chickens suffer from rickets, eggshells become thinner, and egg production rates decrease. Excessive vitamin D can cause hypercalcemia, causing excess calcium to deposit in the heart, blood vessels, etc., leading to heart failure and even death.

⑤Vitamin E. Vitamin E, also known as tocopherol and anti-sterility vitamin, belongs to fat-soluble vitamins. It is a biological antioxidant and has a synergistic effect with selenium. It can prevent the oxidation of fatty acids and other easily oxidized substances, protect the integrity of biofilms, and maintain red blood cells and capillaries. The stability and integrity of blood vessels, etc. Vitamin E can also promote gonad development, improve chicken immunity, and increase egg production rate. Generally, green feed and cereal feed are rich in vitamin E, but when chickens are in a state of stress, they need to supplement vitamin E from the feed. When vitamin E is deficient, it mainly causes muscular dysplasia, and the typical symptom is "white muscle disease". Long-term lack of vitamin E sick chickens develop paralysis and encephalomalacia, and finally die due to heart failure.

⑥ Vitamin K. Vitamin K, also known as coagulation vitamin or anti-bleeding vitamin, is a kind of fat-soluble vitamin. Its main physiological function is to promote the synthesis of thrombin and coagulation factors in the liver and activate them to participate in the coagulation process. Generally, it can be synthesized in the body and does not need to be added to the feed. But when chickens are beak trimmed, vitamin K needs to be added. Vitamin K deficiency can lead to poor blood clotting, subcutaneous purple spots, and anemia.