What are the uses of feed additives?
Abstract: This article only describes two categories of feed additives:nutritional feed additives and non-nutritive feed additives.
1. Nutritional feed additives mainly include vitamin additives,trace element additives andamino acid additives.
(l) Vitamin additives: Pigs require very little vitamins, but their role is extremely important, mainly to maintain the normal metabolism of the body. Among them, vitamin A mainly regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and has the effect of protecting the skin and mucous membranes; vitamin D mainly regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism; vitamin E can promote gonadal development and reproductive function; vitamin K can promote the formation of prothrombin , has the effect of hemostasis; vitamin B2 can improve the utilization rate of vegetable protein; choline has the effect of preventing and treating fatty liver; vitamin C can increase the resistance to disease infection and reduce the body's stress response.
(2) Trace element additives: The trace elements needed for pig raising mainly include copper, zinc, iron, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium and other elements. These elements have comprehensive functions such as regulating body metabolism, promoting growth and development, improving carcass quality, enhancing disease resistance and improving feed conversion rate.
(3) Amino acid additives: Amino acids are the main components of protein synthesis in pigs. There are more than 10 kinds of essential amino acids in pigs, such as lysine, methionine, tryptophan and threonine. The main function of adding amino acids is to make up for the lack of amino acids in the feed, so that other amino acids can be fully utilized, thereby saving a lot of high-quality protein feeds such as soybean cake (meal) and fish meal, and reducing feeding costs.
2. Non-nutritive feed additives mainly include health-promoting additives, feed quality protection additives and product quality improvement additives.
(l) Health-promoting additives: These additives can inhibit the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms, improve some physiological processes in pigs, improve feed utilization, promote pig growth, and increase the economic benefits of pig raising. It mainly includes antibiotic additives and various growth promoters.
(2) Feed quality protection additives: Since some ingredients in the feed are easily oxidized when exposed to the air, or are easily deteriorated in the environment of high temperature and high humidity, some antioxidants, anti-mold and preservatives are usually added to the feed to prevent Effectively protect feed quality. At present, the commonly used antioxidants are mainly oxycyanine, dibutyl hydroxytoluene, vitamin C, vitamin E and so on. Anti-mildew preservatives mainly include propionic acid, sodium propionate, citric acid, sodium citrate, etc.
(3) Product quality improvement additive: The main one used in pig production is an additive that promotes the growth of lean meat. For example, "more lean meat" can increase the lean meat rate of the carcass, improve the quality of pork, and reduce the cost of feeding.
(4) New feed additives: mildew preparations are non-toxic, non-residual and free of side effects, and are excellent new growth-promoting feed additives. The commonly used ones are amylase, protease, lipase, cellulase, phytase, etc.; Ecological preparations are biological high-tech growth-promoting additives, commonly used are Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium and yeast, etc. Chinese herbal medicines do not produce drug resistance and resistance due to their unique anti-parasitic mechanism of action. It has medicinal properties and can be added for a long time, such as licorice, astragalus, garlic, hawthorn, etc.; organic acids include fumaric acid, citric acid, lactic acid, formic acid, etc.; new feed additives discovered and developed in recent years include betaine, fluorspar , medical stone, rare earth and unknown factors.