What are the parasitic diseases of pigs? How to treat pigs suffering from pig parasitic diseases?
What are the pig parasitic diseases? The survey shows that the internal parasites that endanger the production of live pigs mainly include five species of roundworm, lung nematode, gastric strongy nematode, echinocephalus and fasciola, and two species of external parasites are scabies mites and blood lice.
1. Ascariasis: It is caused by Ascaris suum parasitic in the small intestine of pigs. It has a high infection rate, strong fecundity and high infection intensity. Harm after pig infection: First, the migration of larvae can cause mechanical damage to the internal organs of pigs, causing pneumonia; second, it can deprive pigs of nutrition, resulting in anemia and weight loss; third, parasitic stimulation of parasites can cause enteritis and diarrhea; fourth, Insect toxins cause reduced resistance of pigs, secondary diseases, and eventually death. This disease is the most serious internal parasitic disease of pigs. Diagnosis: take the feces of sick pigs to collect eggs by flotation method to check the eggs.
2. Pneumocystis. It is caused by parasitic lung nematodes in pig bronchi and bronchioles. Mild infection has strong paroxysmal cough, which can cause pneumonia, difficulty in breathing after exercise and feeding, anemia and weight loss in sick pigs, and finally weakened and died. Diagnosis: The worm eggs in the feces of sick pigs were examined by the floatation method of saturated solution of magnesium sulfate, and the drooping part of the pulmonary diaphragmatic lobe was examined by autopsy to examine the worm bodies in the pulmonary trachea.
3. Strongyloidiasis. It is caused by Strongyloides gastrocnemius parasitic in the gastric mucosa of pigs. When pigs have strong resistance and a small number of parasites, there is no abnormality; when pigs are weak, have poor resistance or are parasites in large numbers, mechanical stimulation of parasites can cause gastritis, sick pigs have poor spirit, anemia, weight loss, and stunted growth. Discharge mixed blood melena. Diagnosis: Combined with clinical symptoms, pathological autopsy to detect parasites and fecal flotation method to check parasite eggs and other comprehensive analysis to confirm the diagnosis.
4, acanthosis. Acanthocephalus parasites in the small intestine of pigs, the snout of the parasite is firmly inhaled into the mucosa of the small intestine, and the mechanical damage of the snout hook can cause enteritis, necrosis and ulcers. When pigs are severely infected, the symptoms such as loss of appetite, diarrhea, bloody stool, and abdominal pain are obvious. Can lead to intestinal perforation, peritonitis, intestinal adhesions. Diagnosis: fecal eggs can be detected by floating method, and parasites can also be detected in the small intestine of affected pigs.
5, ginger fascioliasis. It is caused by Fasciola chinensis parasitic in the small intestine of pigs, mainly because the parasite absorbs the mechanical damage of the intestinal mucosa, deprives it of nutrients and toxins and causes disease. Severe infection can cause stubborn diarrhea, progressive weight loss, loss of appetite, and indigestion in pigs. Diagnosis: Fecal flotation method and repeated sedimentation method can be used to check the eggs.
6, scabies mites. The scabies mites are parasitic on the skin of the head, neck, shoulders, and legs of pigs. The disease is highly contagious. The parasites dig tunnels under the skin of the parasites, lay eggs and reproduce, causing the sick pigs to itch and bite the railings. Can cause great economic losses.
7, blood lice. Most parasitic in pig neck, ears, ribs, inner legs and abdominal skin folds. Blood lice make pigs restless and slow to grow.
Prevention of swine parasitic diseases
1. Self-propagation is recommended
It is recommended that pig farms reproduce and raise themselves. If live pigs are imported from other fields, an all-in and all-out breeding method should be adopted to prevent the introduction of parasitic diseases. If you really need to buy live pigs, you should buy them from places without epidemic situation, and check the quarantine certificate before purchasing. The purchased pigs were kept in isolation for more than 2 weeks, and the feces were checked to determine whether they had parasites. If a disease is found, 1 to 2 times of deworming and re-examination must be carried out, and it can be transferred to the production area after a comprehensive test confirms that there is no disease.
2. Develop a prevention plan
Pig farms should, under the guidance of veterinarians, formulate parasite control procedures according to the prevalence and regularity of parasitic diseases in the region or the farm, the history of the pig farm, and the breed, age, and feeding and management of pigs. Locally raised pigs can be dewormed twice a year at appropriate times. The prevention and control of parasitic diseases should be regularized and institutionalized. Before deworming in large-scale pig farms, do a good job of parasite monitoring, and take the monitoring results as the basis for deworming.
3. Eliminate intermediate hosts
Eliminating intermediate hosts and cutting off transmission vectors are effective measures to prevent the spread of parasitic diseases. Many parasites to which pigs are susceptible (eg, flukes, tapeworms, echinocephalus, and some nematodes) require the involvement of intermediate hosts and vectors during development. Using chemicals or biological methods (cultivating the natural enemies of the intermediate host, such as raising ducks, raising fish, etc.) can eliminate the intermediate host and cut off the transmission medium. Pig farms (households) are prohibited from keeping pets such as cats and dogs, and regularly do a good job of eliminating rodents, mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, and insects to reduce the chance of parasitic diseases.
4. Environmental disinfection
Breeders' clothing and utensils can be heated and sterilized; pens, transport vehicles, etc. can be disinfected by spraying with pyrethroid, amitraz, monoformamidine, and mites. Immature eggs have weak resistance to dry and high temperature environments. The pig house should be made of concrete, and the house should preferably be sunny.
Using new technologies and new achievements to prevent parasitic diseases in pigs, such as swine Toxoplasma gondii vaccine, can make pigs immune through artificial inoculation, so as to achieve the purpose of immune prevention of swine toxoplasmosis.
6. Do regular inspections
Large-scale pig farms should regularly test pigs for parasitic diseases, and breeders should also conduct regular testing or health inspections to monitor the infection of parasites in pigs at different stages and periods.
7. Scientific deworming
Deworming to master the following essentials: First, fasting before deworming. In order to facilitate the absorption of deworming drugs by pigs, fasting should be performed for 12 to 18 hours before deworming. The second is to choose anthelmintic drugs with high efficiency, broad spectrum, low toxicity, good palatability, convenient administration, no residue and not easy to develop drug resistance, such as ivermectin, abamectin, worm star, anthelmintic essence, Amisazole and levamisole, etc. Care should be taken to avoid overdose or underdose. The third is continuous medication. In order to improve the deworming effect, it is necessary to use 2 to 3 times of deworming drugs continuously. For some ectoparasites, such as scabies mites, anthelmintics can only kill the parasites, but not the eggs. The correct method of medication is to take another medication at an interval of 1 week after the first deworming to prevent the recurrence of the disease. Fourth, deworming should be carried out in places with isolation conditions in order to clean up the excrement of sick pigs. Fifth, pay attention to the deworming time. Generally, the worms should be dewormed before sexual maturity to prevent the sexually mature adults from expelling eggs and larvae. Deworming should be carried out in autumn and winter. At this time, deworming is conducive to the safe wintering of livestock and poultry. The cold autumn and winter are not conducive to the survival and development of most eggs or larvae, which can reduce pollution. Sixthly, before large-scale deworming, conduct small group experiments to gain experience and confirm the efficacy and ensure safety, and then carry out whole group deworming. Seven is to observe the deworming effect. After administration, the reaction of pigs should be observed, and corresponding measures should be taken immediately in case of poisoning, such as vomiting, diarrhea and other symptoms. Eighth, strictly enforce the drug withdrawal period to prevent drug residues. In general, deworming with drugs is not available for three weeks before slaughter.
Treatment of swine parasites
1. Breeding pigs: Deworming twice a year. Breeding sows are dewormed by parity, that is, 24-26 days after sow parturition (10 days before breeding), inject ivermectin at 0.3 mg/kg body weight; or feed with albendazole powder mixture , administered at 5-10 mg/kg body weight.
2. Weaned sows: transferred to the breeding house, sprayed with amphetamine emulsion mixed with water, focusing on the prevention and control of external parasites.
3. Pigs in the breeding house, pregnancy house, and farrowing house can rub Vaseline on the parts with severe scabies mites (penicillin can be added to Vaseline), scrape off the crust after 3 days, and then use amphetamine emulsion medicine Bath, make the liquid penetrate the skin, improve the curative effect, the effective rate is more than 99%.
4. 10 days after the nursery pigs are put into the slaughter, the whole herd is sprayed with amphetamine emulsion mixed with water to prevent and treat external parasitic diseases. 15 days after entering the pen, it was fed with albendazole powder mixture, and it was fed once again before the fattening pig house, and the dose was 5-10 mg/kg body weight.