Analysis of relative characteristics of enzyme preparations
The feed contains a variety of anti-nutritional factors, which will limit the release of nutrients in the feed, coupled with the deficiency or absence of digestive enzymes in the animal's gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a low digestibility of the feed and affecting the utilization rate of the feed. , and is not conducive to the healthy growth of animals. The application of enzyme preparations can effectively overcome the anti-nutritional factors in the feed and give full play to the potential nutritional value of the feed raw materials. The application of enzyme preparations can significantly improve the utilization of nutrients such as protein and starch, greatly improve the selectivity of feed raw materials, help reduce the cost of feed, and effectively expand the scope of application of raw materials. At the same time, the application of enzyme preparations in feed can also help reduce the difference in nutritional value in raw materials, thereby reducing the impact of raw material quality differences on feed quality. The application of the enzyme preparation can also reduce the water content in animal feces, and can also effectively inhibit diarrhea. In addition, the application of enzyme preparations in feed can also help to promote the health of animal intestines, and at the same time improve the absorption rate of animal feed nutrients, thereby reducing the excretion of nutrients in animal feces, which not only helps to protect animals Nutrition can also reduce pollution to the environment.2 Reasons for the inconsistent use of enzyme preparations The application of enzyme preparations will be affected by many factors, so the use effect is also inconsistent, such as the composition of the feed, the corresponding environment and application conditions, etc., will have an impact on the use effect. In addition, the species of animals will also affect the use of enzyme preparations. For example, under normal circumstances, the application effect of enzyme preparations in pig feed is relatively poor, while the application effect in poultry feed is better. This occurs because pigs and poultry differ in the capacity of the digestive tract and the length of time the digesta passes through the digestive tract. Compared with poultry, feed passes through the digestive tract of pigs for a longer time, so pigs have better digestion and absorption of feed nutrients. At the same time, pigs have a larger gastrointestinal tract capacity than poultry, so they are affected by sticky chyme. The impact is relatively small. In addition, the age of animals is also an important factor affecting the effect of enzyme preparations. Under normal circumstances, if the digestive system of the animal is not fully developed, the effect of using enzyme preparations is better. For example, adding enzyme preparations to the feed of young animals can better exert the effect and effect of enzyme preparations. This is because the ability of young animals to secrete digestive enzymes is limited, so the addition of enzyme preparations can play a greater role. As animals age, their ability to secrete digestive enzymes will gradually increase, so the effect of enzyme preparations will also decrease. In addition, the quality of feed is also an important factor affecting the effect of enzyme preparations. The quality of the feed mainly depends on the anti-nutritional factors contained in the feed ingredients. The higher the content of anti-nutritional factors, the lower the quality of the feed, and vice versa. For example, the soluble non-starch polysaccharides in wheat are all anti-nutritional factors. The application of enzyme preparations in poor-quality feeds can better exert the effect of enzyme preparations on overcoming anti-nutritional factors, so the application effect of enzyme preparations in poor-quality feeds is more significant. However, in high-quality feeds, due to the low content of anti-nutritional factors, the effect of enzyme preparations cannot be fully exerted. It can be seen that the quality of the feed will greatly affect the use effect of the enzyme preparation.Main types of enzyme preparations1 Enzyme preparation for sticky grains Such enzyme preparations mainly include β-glucanase and xylanase. Barley and wheat contain β-glucan and soluble non-starch polysaccharides. These enzyme preparations can effectively overcome the anti-nutritional factors in barley and wheat. . Under normal circumstances, the content of soluble non-starch polysaccharides will directly affect the low nutritional value of barley and wheat, and will increase the viscosity of digested matter to a certain extent, which will affect the digestion of feed by animals, resulting in a decrease in the absorption rate of nutrients in the feed. At the same time, the increased viscosity also greatly reduces the passage rate of chyme in the gastrointestinal tract, creating favorable conditions for bacterial reproduction, which will seriously threaten the intestinal health of animals. The application of enzyme preparations, especially for those low-quality wheats, can have a very significant effect, while for those higher-quality wheats, the use of enzyme preparations is not ideal.2 Enzymes acting on non-sticky grains Non-sticky grains mainly include sorghum and corn. Non-sticky grains are usually the main diet of poultry. By adding enzymes (containing active amylase), poultry can further improve the utilization rate of non-sticky grain nutrients. At present, there are enzyme preparations specially designed for sorghum and corn-based feeds on the market. Rational application can improve the digestibility of starch in non-sticky grains, but the specific effect has not been confirmed. The substrate for microbial phytases is phytic acid, which is the main storage for phosphorus. According to relevant investigations and studies, the utilization rate of phytate and phosphorus in plant raw materials by animals is not high, and there is still a lot of room for improvement. This situation will cause a large amount of phosphorus to be excreted with the feces of animals, which will not only pollute the environment, but also be unfavorable for the healthy growth of animals. The application of microbial phytase can effectively improve this situation. Therefore, the utilization rate of microbial phytase is very extensive. Phytase can release phytate phosphorus in different feed ingredients. Amylase and protease are mainly added to the diet of young animals. Taking weaned piglets as an example, due to the sudden drop in the secretion of autonomous enzymes due to weaning, it will adversely affect the digestive function of piglets and affect the absorption and digestion of nutrients by piglets. The addition of amylase and protease can effectively alleviate this situation, improve the digestive function of piglets, enhance the immunity of piglets, and promote the healthy growth of piglets.5 Enzymes acting on non-grain In recent years, the application of soybean and vegetable protein raw materials has become more and more extensive. Such raw materials mainly include sunflower meal, grain legumes and palm kernel meal. Feeds using these vegetable proteins as raw materials have been widely used in animal breeding and have great development prospects. However, the high fiber and non-starch polysaccharides contained in these raw materials will seriously affect the digestibility of nutrients by animals. The application of non-grain enzyme preparations can improve the problem of low nutrient digestibility caused by high fiber or non-starch polysaccharides, and create more favorable conditions for the application of soybean and vegetable protein raw materials.Application analysis of enzyme preparation in animal feed At present, the enzyme preparations used in feed are all produced by microorganisms, and the production methods are divided into two types: solid fermentation method and liquid fermentation method, and the application of solid fermentation method is more extensive. The quality of the enzyme preparation produced by the solid fermentation method is difficult to guarantee, the fermentation level is low, and the yield of enzyme protein is not high. In addition, in the production process of pellet feed, high temperature will reduce the activity of enzymes to a large extent, which will lead to the decline of the function and effect of enzyme preparations. In view of this situation, during the application of enzyme preparations, attention should be paid to reducing the impact on enzyme activity. At the same time, combined with the complex characteristics of feed ingredients, compound enzymes should be added as much as possible. Compared with adding single enzymes, the effect of adding compound enzymes will be more significant.
At the same time, in the production process of enzyme preparations, the enzyme preparations produced by the solid fermentation method are mostly composite enzymes. This composite enzyme is usually dominated by one enzyme, and contains several other enzymes at the same time, and has strong activity. Can give full play to the role of enzyme preparations. In addition, due to the large differences in the types of crops planted in different regions of my country, the types of livestock feeds in different regions are different. In addition, the types of enzyme preparations produced by some manufacturers in my country are relatively single, which will greatly reduce the Limit the scope of application of enzyme preparations. Faced with this situation, enzyme preparations should be developed according to the actual needs of the region, so that the enzyme preparations can be more targeted, and the enzyme preparations should be used in combination with the needs of animals and the characteristics of animal diets, so as to ensure the use effect of enzyme preparations. Original title of the article: Application of enzyme preparations in animal nutrition and feed