Reasons and countermeasures for the decline of egg production rate of laying hens
Abstract: The continuous expansion of the breeding scale of laying hens has promoted the rapid development of the agricultural economy and provided a guarantee for people's lives. However, in actual production, many problems often occur, resulting in a decline in the egg production rate of chickens. There are many factors that cause the decline of laying hens. This paper discusses the reasons and countermeasures based on years of practical experience, in order to provide reference and reference for laying hens.
Key words: laying hens; egg production rate; countermeasures
The number, scale and feeding level of the farms are getting higher and higher, and the production efficiency is getting better and better. The decline of laying hens or the unsustainable peak period of laying hens is an important factor affecting the production of laying hens, and it is also an urgent problem for laying hen production enterprises. Laying hens have higher requirements on the breeding environment, and cold air, noise, etc. will affect the production performance of laying hens. Based on years of practical experience, the author summarizes and analyzes the reasons for the decline of laying hens, and puts forward some suggestions on how to solve these problems.
1 Reasons for the decline in egg production rate of laying hens
1.1 Nutritional factors
Changes in feed components (such as changing feeds from different manufacturers), or the use of moldy or inferior feeds, etc., will cause the egg production rate to decline. Inferior feeds cannot fully meet the nutritional needs of laying hens during the laying period, resulting in nutritional imbalances; insufficient or high nutrient content in feeds, and changes in raw material types and nutrient components will lead to a decline in laying hens' laying rate. It is necessary to strictly follow the nutritional requirements of laying hens to ensure that the nutritional content of the feed meets the requirements. Strengthen feed management, avoid mildew, and do not frequently replace feed and feed ingredients. If the laying hens have normal egg production and do not lose weight, it is not necessary to change the feed formula.
1.2 Feeding and management factors
In the production of laying hens, feeding and management is a very important link. Temperature, relative humidity, feeding methods, drinking water, ventilation, etc. are all important factors affecting the production of laying hens.
Laying hens are more sensitive to temperature. Hot summers, cold winters, and windy and volatile springs can all create a stress response to the flock. In the environment of 29 °C, the egg production rate of laying hens will be reduced by 5% to 10%. This is because high temperature will lead to water loss and acid-base imbalance in the chicken body, resulting in a decrease in egg production rate. When the relative humidity of the house is high and the ventilation is poor, there will be a large irritating odor in the house, and the laying hens are prone to upper respiratory tract diseases, resulting in a decrease in the egg production rate. Unreasonable feeding methods, such as feeding too much or too little, feeding time is not fixed, etc., will lead to a decrease in egg production rate. Insufficient drinking water or poor water quality will cause dehydration of chickens, resulting in decreased resistance of chickens, inducing various diseases, and ultimately affecting the egg production rate. Especially in summer, it is necessary to ensure sufficient drinking water. If the feces in the chicken house are not cleaned in time, the accumulation and fermentation of the feces will emit strong ammonia gas, causing respiratory diseases, and even causing tears and blindness, resulting in a decrease in the egg production rate. Unreasonable chicken house design, poor ventilation, and insufficient light will inhibit the secretion of gonadal hormones, thereby affecting the egg production rate. In addition, factors such as mistakes caused by the lack of responsibility of the breeders, frequent changing of clothes of different colors, incomplete disinfection, and inadequate epidemic prevention measures will all lead to a decline in the egg production rate.
1.3 Environmental factors
Irregular changes in light time and intensity in chicken houses will lead to a decline in egg production. During the egg laying period, attention should be paid to controlling the duration of light, which cannot be shortened, and at the same time ensure the light intensity in the chicken house. In addition, strengthen the ventilation of the chicken house. When the air in the chicken house is polluted, it is necessary to open the window or open the exhaust fan in time to reduce the concentration of harmful gases in the chicken house, thereby reducing the respiratory disease of the chicken. Ensure that the chicken house is warm in winter and cool in summer, take cooling measures in summer, and do insulation work in winter to prevent chickens from suffering from cold and heat stress.
1.4 Drug factors
During the laying period, the use of antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs and other drugs will have a certain impact on the laying rate of laying hens. For example, tetracyclines will form compounds with metal ions such as calcium and magnesium in the digestive tract of chickens, which will affect their absorption. They will also combine with calcium ions in the blood to form calcium salts that are insoluble in water, resulting in calcium deficiency in chickens, resulting in production Egg rate dropped. Adrenal cortical hormone drugs such as dexamethasone will obviously inhibit the development of eggs, which will reduce the egg production rate of laying hens by more than 30%. After the drug is stopped, the egg production rate is difficult to recover.
2 Measures to improve the laying rate of laying hens
2.1 Scientific management
One is the appropriate ambient temperature. In hot weather, the chicken house should be equipped with cooling facilities, such as wet curtains, fans, etc.; in winter, pay attention to keeping warm and windproof, and install heating when needed. The second is the appropriate ambient humidity. In summer, the chickens drink a lot of water, and the relative humidity of the chicken house will increase, and ventilation should be carried out in time to ensure that there is no peculiar smell in the chicken house. The third is proper lighting. The optimal light time during the peak egg laying period was 16 h, and the light intensity was 3 W/m2. Excessive light time will lead to abnormal body function of chickens, and insufficient light in a short period of time will have a certain inhibitory effect on calcium absorption and sex hormone secretion in chickens. The fourth is to regularly clean the feces in the chicken coop. In summer, when the temperature is high, the frequency of cleaning should be increased to reduce the generation of harmful gases such as ammonia in the chicken house. The fifth is reasonable feeding. It should be fed as soon as possible in the morning, and the amount of feeding should be more, a small amount of feeding at noon, and feeding later in the evening, which can promote the appetite of laying hens and increase feed intake. Sixth, provide sufficient and clean drinking water. Especially in the high temperature in summer, it is necessary to provide clean and sufficient drinking water for the chickens to ensure long-term water supply from the automatic water supply device, and the drinking water should be replaced frequently. In addition, the drinking water is supplemented with the right amount of nutrients to ensure the body's electrolyte balance. Seventh, strengthen the management of chicken farms, ensure the stability of employees, and conduct regular health checks to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. Eight is the appropriate stocking density. The stocking density of caged laying hens should be arranged according to the size of the cage. When the temperature is high in summer, the stocking density should be appropriately reduced.
2.2 Reasonable preparation of feed
According to the nutritional needs of the laying period, the level of protein, minerals and other feed ingredients should be reasonably prepared. The feed must be purchased from a regular feed manufacturer with a production license, with production date, inspection list, etc.; the feed should be stored in a cool and dry place to prevent mildew. In summer, chickens do not need much energy, so the energy of the feed can be appropriately reduced, but the demand for protein is large, and the protein level of the feed can be increased. In summer, when egg production reaches 80%, the feed protein level should be adjusted to 18%. In winter, the energy level of the feed should be increased, and the protein level should be 17% to 17.5%. Reasonably add minerals during the peak egg production period, and supplement calcium and phosphorus in a timely manner. When adding traditional Chinese medicine preparations to the feed, vitamins must be added, and reasonable adjustments should be made according to factors such as season, environment, egg production rate, and health status of chickens to ensure the health and nutritional needs of chickens. During the laying period, the feed cannot be changed at will, and if it must be changed, it should be gradually transitioned. The use of inferior and moldy feed is prohibited.
2.3 Do a good job of disinfection
According to the epidemic characteristics of local laying hens, formulate an immunization plan suitable for the actual situation of the field, and conduct targeted vaccination. The vaccination operation should be correct and the quality of the vaccine should be good to ensure the effectiveness of the vaccination. For diseases that are prone to occur in some areas, it is recommended to vaccinate with monovalent vaccines to achieve better immune effects. At the same time, according to the body condition of the flock, some nutrients or feed additives are appropriately added to improve the immunity of the flock. Do a good job of disinfection inside and outside the chicken house, and strictly implement relevant systems such as entry disinfection.
2.4 Symptomatic treatment
Isolate and treat sick chickens in a timely manner. When choosing a drug, attention should be paid to its effect on the egg production rate, and it is best to choose a drug that has less effect on the egg production rate. During treatment, the cause should be diagnosed, whether it is a viral, bacterial or parasitic disease, and rational drug use should be made for the cause to avoid indiscriminate drug use that affects egg production rate and egg quality. At the same time, the drugs that can repair the damage to the fallopian tubes and ovaries are used together to promote the recovery of egg production rate. Sick and dead chickens should be treated harmlessly, and empty sheds and pens should be disinfected.
There are many types of diseases in laying hens, and prevention and control measures should be strengthened. One is to strengthen epidemic prevention work. According to the immunization program of laying hens, scientific vaccine immunization and strict immunization operations are carried out to reduce the stress on the flock. The second is to strengthen environmental sanitation and regular disinfection. The chicken coop and the surrounding environment should be kept clean, and a disinfection pool and disinfection room should be set up at the gate of the chicken farm. The disinfection frequency of the chicken house is 2 to 3 days a week, 1 to 2 times a day. The empty house should be fumigated and disinfected. Try not to use irritating disinfectants, and mild sterilization. The third is to add drugs in a timely manner for control. In summer, in order to reduce stress, traditional Chinese medicine preparations can be added to the diet to prevent Escherichia coli and so on. During egg laying, the use of sulfonamides is prohibited. Fourth, timely treatment. According to the condition of the flock, the common diseases are treated in time, and the sick chickens are isolated at the same time to improve the curative effect, reduce the mortality rate of the flock and improve the feeding efficiency.
Based on the above analysis, the main factors that lead to the decline of laying hens are feeding management, external environment, diseases, etc. In order to improve the economic benefits of chicken farms, the feeding and management of laying hens should be standardized to ensure the stability of the external environment. Good disease prevention and other work.