Harm and control measures of mycotoxins to laying hens
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by mold growth in grains or feed. Hundreds of mycotoxins have been identified, with different toxicity, metabolic pathways and target organs in animals. The harm caused by mycotoxins is a global problem, present in almost all feed ingredients and human food ingredients. Because chickens poisoned by mycotoxins may not appear typical on the surface, and sometimes there are no visible symptoms, they often show some characteristics of infectious diseases. Therefore, the harm of mycotoxins is often ignored in clinical practice. Therefore, The harm caused by mycotoxins is not everyone's attention.
1. The harm of mycotoxins to laying hens
protein water-like, mycotoxin residues, and serious microbial contamination, resulting in a significant decline in egg quality, bringing huge losses to laying hen farmers.
Laying hens are more sensitive to mycotoxins than broilers, mainly based on the following three factors: the longer life cycle of laying hens and the continuous intake of low doses of mycotoxins make them ideal for chronic poisoning; DDGS is more commonly used in laying hen feed These by-products often contain more mycotoxins than corn; the hens are frequently stressed, causing adverse consequences such as immunodeficiency, which further exacerbates mycotoxins.
Mycotoxin poisoning in laying hens, the main manifestations are: excitement in the flock (similar to drug poisoning, enteritis, coccidiosis); low feed intake; rough feathers; individual chickens in the flock spit water; , The effect of enteritis drugs is poor; the uniformity of chickens is poor, and the size is different (similar to infectious glandular gastritis); the growth is slow, and the ratio of feed to meat is high. After autopsy, there are white pseudomembrane in the crop; the liver is swollen and black in color; the kidney is swollen; the glandular stomach is swollen, and the glandular stomach papilla has severe bleeding; the inner gold is thickened and hardened, and cracks and ulcers appear.
2. Control measures
of mycotoxins Given that there is no perfect treatment method for mycotoxins at present, the importance of the poultry disease prevention and control strategy of "prevention is more important than cure and breeding is more important than prevention" is more prominent for standardized commercial laying hen farms. Only by implementing the principle of "prevention first", comprehensive health care for poultry flocks, and establishment of a sound biosecurity system, can we prevent problems before they occur.
1. Prevention ofmycotoxins feed:
(1) Keep feed and raw materials dry: Moisture is a major factor causing mildew in feed. When the moisture content in feed reaches 17% to 18%, fungi are very easy to multiply and produce toxins. Therefore, it is the most simple and effective method to control the feed moisture below the safety line and ensure uniform drying.
(2) Shorten the storage time of feed: A survey shows that mildew is easily caused when the storage time of feed exceeds 45d, and with the extension of time, the degree of mildew of the feed increases. Therefore, the purchase of feed raw materials should reduce the inventory time, speed up the turnover, and reduce the circulation links.
(3) Treatment of feeds that have produced mycotoxins: Add mycotoxins adsorbents to feeds, commonly used natural aluminosilicate inorganic adsorbents (such as bentonite, zeolite, montmorillonite, etc.) and yeast cell extracts Organic adsorbents (such as glucomannan), etc., as well as 4% complex mycotoxin detoxifier recommended by some scholars (mainly composed of Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus and hydrated silicate), improved detoxification Agents such as calcareous montmorillonite and sodium montmorillonite.
2. Mold prevention in the air, drinking water and bedding in the poultry house
(1) Strengthen the ventilation and disinfection in the poultry house: regularly conduct microbiological testing on the air in the poultry house by air exposure method. Once the mold exceeds the standard, find the cause immediately , eliminate the factors that cause mold growth, and at the same time strengthen the ventilation in the poultry house and strengthen the disinfection, you can choose to use 0.5% peracetic acid (or 10% peracetic acid 1:600) to take the chicken to disinfect twice a day, and monitor it every day. , until the air quality is up to standard, and then determine the disinfection interval during the season.
(2) Regular monitoring of drinking water: Regularly use the pouring method to conduct microbiological testing on the water source of poultry drinking water and the water in the water line. Once it is found that the mold exceeds the standard, immediately find out the reason. If the water source is polluted, the water source must be replaced. If the water line is polluted, the professional water line can be used to clean and disinfect the product regularly, and the effect can be monitored to determine the cleaning interval.
(3) Replace the litter or remove the feces in time: the litter and feces in the chicken house are also prone to mold growth in the case of high humidity. Therefore, it is necessary to replace the litter and remove the feces in time to avoid mold contamination of the environment.
3. Treatment of flocks with mycosis
Drink water with 0.05% ketone sulfate solution for 5 days, stop drinking for 3 days, and drink again for 3 days; feed with nystatin mixture, add 1 million units per kilogram of feed, and use it for 1 week; strengthen feeding management, do a good job in disinfection, improve Construction of biosafety system.
It should be pointed out that in recent years, the harm caused by mycotoxins to the chicken industry has become more and more serious. Some people say that mycotoxins are the hidden killers of the breeding industry, but now it seems that the harm of mycotoxins has become more and more obvious. , Invisible killer has become one of the culprits that it is more and more difficult to raise chickens, especially the immunosuppression caused by it and several other immunosuppressive diseases is the main reason why the epidemic disease of our chicken industry has become complicated.