Effect of Corn Quality on Poultry Health
1. Corn impurities and water content affect poultry.
The impurities and water content in corn raw grain mainly affect the corn bulk density. Under the same feed intake, the low bulk density will increase the feed intake of poultry and increase the burden on the digestive system. The systemic mucosa is damaged, affecting development and gut health.
During the poultry brooding period, corn test weight has a greater impact on it, and as the intestinal development function becomes more and more perfect, the impact will also decrease, and the adult poultry can almost be ignored. The moisture problem of corn is particularly prominent in new corn. In addition to the possibility of excessive moisture content, new corn can easily induce nutritional diarrhea in chickens because of its resistant starch. Repeated diarrhea can easily cause damage to the small intestinal villi and reduce the efficiency of nutrient absorption.
2. Hazards of mold in corn Corn
is more prone to mold growth, and it can detect many types of mold and toxins, while poultry is more sensitive to mycotoxins, and various mycotoxins are toxic to poultry. Among them, aflatoxins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes are the most harmful to poultry. The impact on poultry health is mainly carcinogenic and mutagenic, damage poultry internal organs, reduce poultry immunity; destroy poultry hematopoietic system, and chickens show symptoms of anemia.
The impact on laying poultry is mainly reflected in the damage to the reproductive system of laying poultry, which can cause ovarian atrophy, oviduct damage, and eggshell thinning; the fertilization rate and hatching rate decrease; the impact on meat poultry is manifested as immunosuppression, growth retardation, Reduced feed conversion ratio, hypochondroplasia and other problems.
3. The impact of grain type on poultry
Corn can be divided into two grain types according to the endosperm structure: silty and horny. Horny corn is harder and the riboflavin content is higher than that of floury corn. Different grain types of corn will produce large differences in the crushing process. The powdery corn will produce larger powder during the crushing process, and the horny corn will be crushed more completely.
Corn crush size affects poultry performance and gut health. Studies have shown that during the growth of broilers, corn grain shape has a greater impact on the development of its digestive system. Large-grained corn can increase the proportion of glandular gizzard and intestinal tract in broilers, but the digestion and absorption efficiency is slightly lower, which has a great impact on the development of internal organs and immune system in broilers. Compared with horny corn, silty corn has higher absorption efficiency and can promote the development of internal organs and immune system of meat and poultry, but because of its fast digestion speed, it is easy to cause excess nutrition in the rear part of the intestinal tract, induce the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria, and cause Intestinal diseases, leading to lower digestive system health score. Horny corn can increase broiler daily gain, improve feed conversion ratio and reduce fat deposition.
4. Countermeasures and plans
1. Strictly control the quality of corn
By testing indicators such as moisture content and bulk density, ensure that corn raw materials are qualified, and reduce the impact on poultry health due to substandard corn quality.
2. Removal of impurities
in corn Most of the molds and toxins in corn stick to the impurities. During the processing and production of poultry feed, a link of air selection and removal of impurities in corn raw materials is added, which can effectively remove impurities and mycotoxins and ensure that poultry are fresh and free of food. Contaminated feed, so that poultry can play the best production performance in the breeding process. The results showed that the deoxynivalenol content in corn could be effectively reduced by winnowing and sieving.
3. Add functional additives
(1) Use mycotoxin adsorbents
For poor-quality corn feed, mycotoxin adsorbents can be used to reduce the damage of toxins to poultry. Mycotoxin adsorbents can be physically adsorbed by adhesion, electrostatic charge or cationic Some mycotoxins can be removed by exchanging and adsorbing toxins; adsorbents can also bind toxins to the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the bioavailability of toxins. Bentonite, glucomannan (GM) and esterified glucomannan (EGM) are used in actual production.
(2) Mycotoxins mainly accumulate in the liver of poultry and cause damage to the liver of poultry. Mycotoxins in the body are generally eliminated through liver metabolism. Through oxidation, hydrolysis, etc., and the addition of bile acids, it can promote the poultry's own absorption and metabolism rate, enhance the ability of the liver to eliminate the mycotoxins accumulated in the liver, and reduce the damage to the poultry liver.
(3) Increase the intake of crude fiber, especially insoluble cellulose, which can absorb toxins, promote peristalsis, accelerate the excretion of toxins, improve intestinal vitality, and increase intestinal health.
4. Adjust the feed processing technology.
Under the premise of not changing the nutritional structure of poultry feed formula, adopting different grain types (silty, horny) corn at different development stages of poultry can effectively improve the production performance and health status of poultry.
In the early growth period (0-21 days) of broilers, floury corn is used, and in the middle and late growth period (21 days-marketing) of broilers, horny corn is used, which can not only ensure the development of internal organs and immune system in the early stage, but also improve feed utilization and improve Gut health.
The crushed particle size of corn has a great influence on the development of the digestive system of broilers. Large-grained corn can increase the proportion of glandular stomach, gizzard and intestinal tract. It should be controlled at 2-4mm. In the late growth period of broiler chickens (29-42 days old), the crushed particle size of colloidal corn is generally controlled at 4-6mm.
5. Scientific management methods
By adjusting the feeding program, reasonable feeding restrictions and empty tanks are also conducive to the utilization of nutrients by poultry, and the use of fast feeding can help improve intestinal health.