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Causes and prevention of poultry respiratory diseases in winter

View: 9 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-11-21 Origin: site

Causes and prevention of poultry respiratory diseases in winter

Every winter, as the weather gradually gets colder,poultry farms(households) often reduce the ventilation volume in the house in order to maintain the temperature in the house, which is likely to cause a high incidence and prevalence of poultry respiratory diseases in winter. Poultry's susceptibility to respiratory diseases is not only related to the physiological structure of the poultry respiratory system, but also closely related to management factors (non-disease factors) and non-management factors (disease factors). Let’s elaborate on these aspects below!
 
Physiological structure characteristics of poultry respiratory system

1. The respiratory system of poultry is different from that of mammals. In addition to the lungs, there are 9 thoracic and abdominal air sacs.

2. There is no diaphragm between the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and the thoracic and abdominal cavities are connected, resulting in frequent peritonitis.

3. The position of the lungs is fixed, and the performance is worse than that of mammals.

4. The respiratory tract is relatively long and the respiratory rate is high.

5. The end point of the respiratory system is not the alveoli but the air sacs. There are no capillaries in the walls of the air sacs, and preventive drugs cannot reach the air sacs through the blood circulation. Therefore, once poultry develops air sacs, it is difficult to treat them.
 
Factors in feeding management

1. Changes in ambient temperature

When the external ambient temperature drops, the temperature in the poultry house cannot be raised in time, resulting in temperature difference or temperature instability in a short period of time, causing cold stress and inducing respiratory system diseases; when the temperature in the poultry house is too low, the humidity is too high, the ventilation is poor, harmful If the gas exceeds the standard, the poultry will appear cough, tracheal rales and dyspnea, which are characterized by respiratory diseases.

In autumn and winter, the stocking density is generally increased, the air quality in the house is seriously reduced, hypoxia, and harmful gases are seriously exceeded, which aggravates respiratory diseases.

2. Vaccination stress

The essence of vaccinating poultry is to simulate the mild pathogenesis of infectious diseases, so it will definitely cause different degrees of respiratory symptoms, that is, vaccine reactions. Generally, after 2-3 days, the respiratory symptoms will disappear automatically, and in autumn and winter, due to the unstable temperature in the house, the normal vaccine reaction will also become a continuous respiratory disease.

In the treatment of this type of respiratory disease, the main focus is on management:

1) In the case of maintaining the required temperature in the house, the minimum ventilation volume should not be lowered.

2) Necessary drug prevention should be carried out before and after immunization to rapidly increase the level of vaccine antibodies, enhance the immune effect, and alleviate the vaccine stress response.

3) Do a good job of ventilation in the house, reduce the concentration of harmful gases such as ammonia in the house, avoid immunity, and strengthen disinfection management.
 
non-feeding management factors

Poultry respiratory disease in a broad sense is a general term for respiratory symptoms caused by various diseases. Commonly seen clinically in poultry, such as sneezing, sneezing, sneezing, dry and wet rales, wheezing, coughing, etc., are only respiratory symptoms; Air sac colibacillosis, fungal infection and other diseases can cause respiratory symptoms in poultry. Therefore, clinically, the etiology of respiratory symptoms should be analyzed in time, and then symptomatic treatment should be carried out. Drugs should not be used blindly but cause side effects. Don't even mention that respiratory drugs are synonymous with so-called macrolide drugs.
 
Prevention

First of all, the most important thing is to prevent mycoplasma disease and protect the epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa.

1. Listen to the sound to diagnose the possible cause

Classification of sounds

common diseases

sneezing, sneezing

Vaccine reaction, Mycoplasma

cough

Early stage of viral disease

snoring, the cry of frogs

Viral disease + bacterial secondary

scream

Severe viral disease (such as bird flu)

scream

coccidiosis, enteritis or strep throat

Wheezing, no discernible sound

Mycosis, Infection

2. Precautions

prevention program

Tilmicosin

main effect

Prevention of various respiratory symptoms caused by mycoplasma, vaccine reaction, environmental stress, etc.

How and when to use

Continuous use for 4-5 days, 2 hours after vaccination

Precautions

This measure is not effective for respiratory symptoms caused by mold or Newcastle disease, and needs to be paid attention to in clinical diagnosis.

3. Thoughts on the treatment of respiratory diseases

1) Mainly symptomatic treatment

A. Small-day-old chicken tilmicosin solution + doxycycline hydrochloride mainly for snoring and nose shaking

B. Coughing, sneezing, screaming chicken tilmicosin solution + antiviral drugs

C. When it is difficult to judge, tilmicosin solution + antiviral drug + antibacterial drug can be used in combination

——Except for respiratory symptoms caused by mold, chlamydia, and typhoid fever, it can basically be cured.

2) Use medication according to the location of the lesion and mucus
A. Infection of the upper respiratory tract - tilmicosin solution + tylosin

B. Infection of the lower respiratory tract - tilmicosin solution + erythromycin

C. Mucus in the syrinx, dull grunt - tilmicosin solution + doxycycline

D. Lung infection:

Lung necrosis, with yellow cheese - tilmicosin + high-efficiency antibacterial drugs

Purple congested lungs - tilmicosin + highly effective antiviral drugs

E. Air sac infection, air sac turbidity, and yellow-white cheese substance - tilmicosin solution + air sac inflammation anti-surface drug + high-efficiency antiviral drug

4. Conventional adjuvant treatment measures

1) Repair the damaged mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, anti-septicemia --- VA, VC

2) Increase the temperature of the shed and increase the ventilation so that the chickens can breathe freely

3) Strengthen the disinfection of chickens to reduce the microbial content in the house.

special reminder

In winter and spring, most of the causes of chicken respiratory symptoms are viral diseases, so don’t forget to add antiviral drugs!