Application Prospect of Isochlorogenic Acid in Animal Husbandry Production
Abstract: Food safety is increasingly attracting public attention, and the production of safe livestock and poultry products will be the focus of future agricultural and animal husbandry workers, especially on the issue of antibiotics. manage. Finding an alternative substance that can not only ensure the high efficiency of livestock and poultry breeding, but also provide market-safe livestock and poultry products has become the theme of safe breeding in recent years. In view of the development experience and medical research results of Eucommia extract on chlorogenic acid and its analogs. The various functions of isochlorogenic acid have a high degree of agreement with the current breeding needs in my country. This paper expounds the application prospects of isochlorogenic acid in view of the various medical functions of isochlorogenic acid combined with the problems faced in actual breeding and production.
Keywords:isochlorogenic acid: dicaffeoylquinic acid substances: antibacterial and anti-inflammatory:
antioxidant Caffeoylquinic acid compounds, natural components produced in plants through the shikimic acid pathway during aerobic respiration. Isochlorogenic acid mainly exists in three different structural forms: isochlorogenic acid A (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid), isochlorogenic acid B (3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid), isochlorogenic acid Ortho acid C (4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) is isomers.
1. Prospects for the application of isochlorogenic acid
With the continuous development of the aquaculture industry and the continuous expansion of the aquaculture scale, front-line aquaculture workers are paying more and more attention to the biological safety of the aquaculture industry, and the amount and scope of antibiotic use are increasing. As a result, the problem of overuse of antibiotics has become increasingly serious. The drug resistance of bacteria caused by the abuse of antibiotics is getting higher and higher, and the problem of drug residues has attracted people's attention. The development and application of new antibiotic substitutes has huge scientific and social value. According to research at home and abroad, isochlorogenic acid not only has the bactericidal and anti-inflammatory functions of antibiotics, but also has a high degree of inhibition of viruses, and has a function-enhancing effect on the animal circulatory system, respiratory system and digestive system. The development of chlorogenic acid can not only directly replace the use of some antibiotics, but also avoid viral diseases in livestock and poultry. Farmers abuse antibiotics to prevent secondary infection. The enhancement of the function of isochlorogenic acid on livestock and poultry system can theoretically promote the utilization rate of feed and enhance the improvement of production performance.
2. How to obtain isochlorogenic acid
2.1 Distribution in plant species
Chlorogenic acids widely exist in higher dicotyledonous plants and ferns, mainly in Lonicer-a and Artemisia plants of the family Lonicaceae. The tallest plants are mainly eucommia, honeysuckle, sunflower, eucommia, coffee, cocoa and so on. In addition, fruits (such as apples, pears), vegetables (such as potatoes, potatoes), soybeans, wheat, green tea and other daily foods contain chlorogenic acids.
Since most plants containing isochlorogenic acid are relatively cheap, and the synthesis of isochlorogenic acid by chemical methods does not have much economic benefit, the current mainstream view is that extracting isochlorogenic acid from plant species is much more expensive than obtaining isochlorogenic acid through chemical synthesis. Chlorogenic acid is more promising.
2.2 Isochlorogenic acid acquisition process
Isochlorogenic acid belongs to phenolic acid. For the extraction of polyphenolic chemical substances, the extraction methods for polyphenolic compounds mainly include thermal cycle extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Compared with the extraction process of chlorogenic acid, such as enzymatic hydrolysis and macroporous resin adsorption, there are very few researches directly on the extraction of isochlorogenic acid, and most of them are about its content determination. Only Fu Xiao and others studied the extraction process of isochlorogenic acid A in Stevia rebaudiana by ultrasonic-assisted method, while Zhang Yamei used caffeic acid and quinic acid as synthetic raw materials through chemical synthesis, and planned to selectively protect the two active substances. The method of functional group-acyl chloride forming ester-deprotection to obtain isochlorogenic acid A, although the yield and efficiency of isochlorogenic acid A are improved, but the disadvantage is that there are many by-products and separation is difficult, so it is not applicable.
3. The main important physiological functions of isochlorogenic acid
3.1 Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory function
Zhou Zhie found that the inhibition of chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A on E. coli was stronger than that of E. coli Chemically synthesized preservatives such as sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. Compared with chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A has a stronger antibacterial effect. The reason may be that isochlorogenic acid A is more symmetrical in chemical structure and less polar, and isochlorogenic acid A contains two coffee acyl group (as shown in the picture below), so that it has more hydroxyl groups and is more effective against bacteria,
During the research on chlorogenic acid substances, MA found that such substances can also inhibit some fungi, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus. The inhibitory effect on fungi will be stronger after the free amino group is combined.
In the process of studying the functional mechanism of caffeoyl in human body, Kimura found that the three isomers of isochlorogenic acid can inhibit the production of leukotriene B4 induced by calcium ion A23187 in human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, while isochlorogenic acid B can promote the secretion of prostaglandin E2, indicating that isochlorogenic acid has a better effect on anti-inflammation.
3.2 Antioxidant effect
Hou Caiping used the zebrafish model to observe and count the antagonistic effect of isochlorogenic acid A on the reduction of keratinocytes induced by metronidazole in zebrafish. It was found that as the concentration of isochlorogenic acid A increased (25, 50, 100ug/mL), its relative antioxidant capacity gradually weakened (60.4%, 48.0%, 44.3%). Fraga used carbon tetrachloride (CC14)-induced in situ and t-BOOH-mediated mouse heart and liver homogenate chemiluminescence experiments to confirm that dicaffeoylquinic acid substances have anti-peroxidation effects and isotropic The isomers of chlorogenic acid all have different degrees of antioxidant effect, and the results of the antioxidant activity test of 7 caffeoylquinic acid compounds in green coffee beans by 1wai et al. showed that the activity of isochlorogenic acid C is the best .
3.3 Inhibition of transcription and translation of genetic material
In the process of studying HIV-1 virus inhibitors at the University of California, the United States found that isochlorogenic acid A can effectively inhibit HIV-1 virus integrase, and it also has a good effect on the transcription and replication of viral genes, and its toxic concentration If the antiviral concentration exceeds 100, the selective therapeutic index is greater than 100. Zuo's research shows that chlorogenic acid substances can enhance DNA self-protection, inhibit HBV infection and anti-carcinogenesis, and have a good control effect on hepatitis B virus. However, ZUO studied the mixture without further research on the specific inhibitory components. The studies of Hu and Hao respectively explained the effectiveness of isochlorogenic acid c and A in the process of anti-HBV. Kim states in his patent. The use of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives (including isochlorogenic acid) can effectively enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer drugs, and obtain better anticancer effects. Fuyunxing used 50μg.ml and 75μg/ml isochlorogenic acid A as the main anti-canine distemper virus drug and found that it had a significant down-regulation effect on the transcription levels of IL-Iβ, IL-6, TNF-α, and TLR3 genes. The above scientific research results show that isochlorogenic acid has a good inhibitory effect on the transcription and translation of harmful microorganisms or diseased cancer cells.
3.4 Protection of metabolic system and smooth muscle inhibition
3.4.1 Protection of metabolic system
Studies have shown that dicaffeoylquinic acid substances have a strong effect on enhancing liver function metabolism and liver protection. During the study of dicaffeoylquinic acids, Adzet found that isochlorogenic acids have a protective effect on liver damage caused by macrophages and chloroform. Choi and Randy found that isochlorogenic acid B can significantly reduce fat peroxidation when studying the effect of Sangwu extract on liver fat metabolism pathway, and Choi's research showed that 250mg/kg concentration of Sangwu extract solution and 10mg/kg concentration Isochlorogenic acid B solution can significantly reduce hepatic lipodystrophy caused by acetaminophen injection.
3.4.2 Smooth muscle inhibition
The inhibition of smooth muscle by dicaffeoylquinic acid substances can be used for certain respiratory diseases such as acute and chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, etc., to relieve bronchial smooth muscle spasm and relieve wheezing symptoms. At the same time, this type of substance can inhibit smooth muscle of the digestive tract shrink. Capasso used electrical stimulation of guinea pigs and found that dicaffeoylquinic acids have a similar effect on inhibiting the contraction of ileal smooth muscle as papaverine; suppression.
Isochlorogenic acid belongs to dicaffeoylquinic acid substances, which are widely studied in medical research. In livestock and poultry production, isochlorogenic acid is often mixed in plant extracts, such as Eucommia extract, and plays a small role. No research institutions and agricultural and animal husbandry companies have applied isochlorogenic acid to livestock alone. poultry production.
Considering the harm of antibiotics abuse and antibiotic residues in food animals to humans, the country has established corresponding laws and regulations to gradually improve the management and rational use of antibiotics. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of isochlorogenic acid may become an important substance to replace antibiotics. China's breeding environment is doomed to livestock production, most animals will face stress and have certain respiratory and digestive tract problems. Stress can lead to excessive oxidation in animals, and the antioxidant effect of isochlorogenic acid against stress to improve feed utilization is of great value to livestock and poultry production: at the same time, dicaffeoylquinic acid such as isochlorogenic acid The enhancement of liver function and the inhibition of smooth muscle contraction are of great significance to the health of livestock and poultry.