Application of Threonine in Feed Addition and Nutrition
L-threonine is an essential amino acid, and threonine is mainly used in medicine, chemical reagents, food fortifiers, feed additives, etc. In particular, the amount of feed additives has grown rapidly. It is often added to the feed of young piglets and poultry, and is the second limiting amino acid in pig feed and the third limiting amino acid in poultry feed.
Threonine is an important nutritional fortifier, which can fortify cereals, pastries, and dairy products. Like tryptophan, it can restore human fatigue and promote growth and development. In medicine, because the structure of threonine contains hydroxyl groups, it has a water-holding effect on human skin, combined with oligosaccharide chains, plays an important role in protecting cell membranes, and can promote phospholipid synthesis and fatty acid oxidation in the body. The preparation has the medicinal effect of promoting human development and resisting fatty liver, and is a component of compound amino acid infusion. At the same time, threonine is also the raw material for the manufacture of a class of highly effective and hypoallergenic antibiotics, monoamidocin.
Threonine used in feed:
With the improvement of people's living standards and the development of aquaculture, threonine, as an amino acid for feed, is widely used to add piglet feed, breeding pig feed, broiler feed, shrimp feed and eel feed. Has the following characteristics:
——Adjust the amino acid balance in the feed to promote growth;
- can improve meat quality;
- can improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients with low amino acid digestibility;
——It can produce low-protein feed, which helps to save protein resources;
——It can reduce the cost of feed raw materials;
——It can reduce the nitrogen content in livestock and poultry manure and urine, and the ammonia concentration and release rate in livestock and poultry houses.
At present, German scientists have discovered a threonine in human blood, and experiments have found that it can prevent HIV from attaching and invading somatic cells, by interfering with the surface protein of HIV, making it unable to function. The discovery of this amino acid provides a pathway for the development of anti-AIDS drugs.
Nutritional uses of threonine:
1. It is used to balance amino acids and promote protein synthesis and deposition
It can eliminate the weight loss caused by excessive lysine and reduce the growth inhibition caused by excessive tryptophan or methionine; after absorption into the body, it can be converted into other amino acids, especially when the amino acid in the feed is unbalanced.
2. Increase feed intake
Threonine has a certain regulatory effect on feed intake, and feed intake and daily gain increase with the increase of threonine level; when the maximum requirement is exceeded, with the increase of threonine level, feed intake Decreased feed intake and daily gain, that is, too much or too little threonine will reduce feed intake and daily gain.
Threonine deficiency will inhibit the production of immunoglobulin and TB lymphocytes, thereby affecting immune function. In avian immunoglobulin molecules, threonine is the main limiting amino acid. Adding threonine can improve chicks' susceptibility to Newcastle disease virus. Antibody titers.
4. Regulate fat metabolism
The addition of threonine in animal diets has a significant effect on body fat metabolism, and it can promote phosphorus synthesis and fatty acid oxidation.
5. Reduce the diarrhea rate of piglets
Experiments have shown that threonine is the main component of small intestinal mucus, is necessary for the synthesis of glycoproteins on the surface of small intestine of pigs, and plays an important role in maintaining the intestinal health and intestinal mucosal function of pigs, especially suckling piglets. Reducing dietary crude protein content by adding synthetic amino acids to low-protein diets is economical and has no adverse effect on animal performance. It is especially important for early weaned piglets. Since the digestive system of piglets is not fully developed, nutritional diarrhea is easily induced when the protein content in the diet is high. The use of low-protein diets supplemented with synthetic amino acids can reduce the incidence of diarrhea in piglets.