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Application of Betaine Hydrochloride in broiler diet

View: 47 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-06-01 Origin: site

Cutting-edge studies highlights that dietary homes of evidently derived and synthetic merchandise are same, unveiling a less expensive, non-hygroscopic in addition to non-seasonal (available all 12 months) supply of betaine for the feed industry. However, special care have to be taken that the unfastened-flowing houses of betaine hydrochloride are constantly ensured, seeing that hygroscopicity may also limit software in feed factories. With a sturdy awareness at the crystallisation procedure and correct software of a free flowing service, a non-hygroscopic betaine hydrochloride can be produced.

Betaine is absorbed via the duodenum. Human research showed speedy absorption and distribution, with a top boom in serum 1–2 h submit food intake. Betaine is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract (git); whereas up to 3/4 of it is able to remain at git intracellular degree. Intracellular accumulation takes area thru energetic (na+ or cl- ) and passive (na+) transport structures.


Betaine is removed by means of metabolism, now not excretion, and catabolised via a series of enzyme reactions (transmethylation) that occur in the mitochondria of liver and kidney cells. The predominant physiologic function of betaine is to behave as an osmolyte and as methyl donor (transmethylation). As an osmolyte (dipolar zwitterion characteristics), betaine will increase intracellular water retention and therefore protects intracellular enzymes in opposition to osmotic brought on inactivation. As a methyl donor, betaine participates within the methionine cycle (mainly within the liver) and may be further used in transmethylation reactions for synthesis of essential materials like carnitine and creatine (determine 1).

Betaine had shown to additionally gather in different internal organs (gut, liver, kidney and coronary heart) to guard them and beautify overall performance in human athletes.

Biological equivalence

Betaine is a zwitterion metabolite additionally called trimethylglycine. It changed into first located in sugar beets and it's also present in other vegetation, animals and seafood. However, sugar beets include pretty high ranges of betaine which collect in condensed soluble (≈ 116,000 mg/kg). Nowadays, betaine is also to be had in several purified paperwork (anhydrous, monophosphate and hydrochloride betaine). A few questions were raised if osmoregulatory homes of betaine hydrochloride had been just like the ones of betaine anhydrous. To take a look at this query, an in vitro trial changed into setup to mimic gastric passage. De krimpe (university of ghent, 2010; unpublished) evaluated the biological equivalence of various betaine sources. The goods were dissolved in a solution of water and hydrochloride with ph 2.3 (gastric situations) and then analysed. Results showed that no matter the ionic form and manufacturing method (natural extraction vs. Chemical synthesis) extraordinary resources of betaine gave the equal analytical outcomes (same m/z retention time pairs); consequently no difference in organic hobby or osmoregulatory feature need to be anticipated. As after gastric passage each molecules are same, no variations between betaine hydrochloride and betaine anhydrous as an effective feed additive ought to reasonably be anticipated.


Use in hen manufacturing

Outcomes of nutrient digestibility, animal performance, metabolism and development in carcass leanness are reviewed and pronounced by means of elklund et al., (2005) and ratriyanto et al., (2009), see desk 1. These peer reviewed papers illustrate the benefits of betaine as a feed additive for enhancing animal performance and slaughter traits. Research included in these  evaluations were certainly conducted with a specific clinical thought and animal responses have been the result of one of the betaine’s modes of motion (methyl donor or osmolyte) which might be each encouraged through the concentration of other methyl donors inside the diet and the presence of either an osmotic or metabolic pressure.

Methyl donor

Nutritional supplementation of betaine may lessen the requirement of other methyl donors together with methionine and choline. But this theoretical utility ought to be subjected to full-size evaluation earlier than realistic implementation. This sparing impact has been very well investigated in poultry and to a lesser quantity in pigs. Pesti et al. (1979) showed that the dietary addition of betaine and methionine can update every different in broiler chicks. Florou-paneri et al. (1997) confirmed that among 30 and eighty% of the supplemental methionine may be substituted through betaine without terrible effects on performance. A more conservative replacement method was evaluated in famous magazines by lensing and van der klis (2007) and cresswell (2010). Each experiments studied the bio-equivalency among betaine and choline/methionine in broilers diets; whereas choline became fully changed and methionine reduced by using 25-30% of day by day necessities. Inside this range of alternative no differences in broilers overall performance had been located.

In keeping with the effects located via cresswell, feeding techniques had been examined to get greater insight into software techniques. This trial changed into executed at ipme pune, india by dr. Rama rao (2011, unpublished) and confirmed progressed performance and carcass yield for all treatments. Two thousand cobb broiler birds were divided over four treatments with  replicates every. The control diets were usual corn-soy diets containing 2,000 ppm, 1,500 ppm and 1,500 ppm added cholinechloride (seventy five%) and 0.61%, zero.Fifty eight% and zero.45% total methionine for respectively starter, grower and finisher diets.

Quality low-budget results (desk 2) had been completed with on top addition of betaine (remedy 2). An investment of $0.002/kg feed resulted in 7% savings in production prices of dressed weight. Replacement of positive tiers of choline and methionine showed exact low-cost effects.

Treatment three (strong substitute of choline and methionine) suggests that with lower feeding prices, a small improvement in manufacturing may be achieved. 

Treatment four (careful substitute of choline and methionine) is a safe strategy with identical expenses of the weight loss plan, however an amazing go back on investment. Premix organizations, compound feed producers and included companies might also have exceptional business pursuits that each may desire their very own approach.


Osmoprotective homes

The regulation of cellular hydration kingdom, and consequently mobile volume, is important for preservation of mobile characteristic and numerous metabolic pathways (i.E.: protein turnover, amino acid carbohydrate, and so on). Cells try and adapt to external osmotic stress by accumulating inorganic ions (na+ , okay+ , cl- ) and organic osmolytes (methylated amines and certain amino acids). But, the growth in intracellular concentrations of inorganic ions is limited due their destabilising effect on protein structure and enzyme characteristic; alternatively organic osmolytes can attain excessive intracellular concentrations without disturbing mobile functions. Betaine is considered the best natural osmolyte. It accumulates in git cells regulating water flux throughout the intestinal epithelium. Betaine additionally had shown to inhibit mobile apoptosis and to lessen strength expenditure for git cells. A five% reduction in energy requirements for renovation (enm) of the git cells in pigs fed betaine become observed.

Several scientific guides showed the evidence of precept that betaine anhydrate can be used to triumph over heat strain. Attia et al., (2009) showed that the effect of extreme heat strain ought to partly be overcome by means of adding betaine to the weight loss program in gradual developing broilers. Adding 1 kg/t betaine to the food regimen progressed weight advantage and feed conversion compared to bad manage remedy. More importantly, rectal temperature decreased (forty three.2°c versus 41.9°c) in comparison to poor control. Panting, a mechanism of closely breathing to lose heat via evaporation, was additionally reduced (78.Three versus 63.Nine breaths/minute). Hassan et al., (2011) showed a clean dose-reaction effect whilst betaine turned into brought in 250, 500, 750 or one thousand g/t feed to the food plan in rabbits saved below excessive heat strain conditions. Haldar et al., (bangkok, 2011) supplied a take a look at underneath greater sensible situations displaying that beneath (milder) heat strain conditions (31°c, ±85% relative humidity) in traditional broilers, the identical consequences can be predicted. Greater importantly, he showed that these results could be obtained using betaine hydrochloride and thereby gave practical proof that betaine hydrochloride has similar osmoregulatory properties as an anhydrous source. 


Betaine has been utilized in broiler vitamins for decades. Medical proof has been provided to show that betaine improves production performance, to replace different methylgroup donors; to help birds all through warmness pressure and to improve slaughter traits. A lot of these posted articles have been no longer clean at the supply of betaine used (natural or artificial), and situation turned into raised if the artificial shape might be as effective in osmoregulation as the herbal equivalent from sugar beet extraction. The supplied information genuinely indicates that if a proper crystalline betaine hydrochloride is used, its molecular structure is comparable after gastric passage as betaine anhydrous. Care have to be taken that the product has good free fl owing houses and is non-hygroscopic. Realistic software trials with birds fed betaine throughout warmness pressure certainly showed the predicted improvement and therewith the mode of movement of betaine hydrochloride as an osmoprotectant. Different techniques to replace choline and methionine have been evaluated and might provide tools to nutritionists to define the most desirable strategy to consist of betaine within the weight-reduction plan. Within the beyond many nutritionists evaluated betaine as a feed additive. With a brand new form of betaine (betaine hydrochloride), the yr around availability has increased, in view that its manufacturing is independent to sugar beet production. Secondly, because the fee fee is generally lower than that of betaine anhydrous, the programs of betaine in broiler vitamins may be reconsidered.