Animal Feed Additive - Chlorogenic Acid, How Much Do You Know?
With the development of large-scale and intensive livestock and poultry breeding, and the pollution of the breeding environment, animals have low immunity and are vulnerable to pathogenic bacteria. Adding antibiotics to livestock and poultry feeds can enhance the animal's own immunity, but it leads to problems such as antibiotic residues and bacterial resistance, which seriously endangers the livestock and poultry breeding environment and the quality and safety of livestock products. Therefore, the development of safe, efficient, and residue-free new feed additives has become a current hotspot. Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenolic substance widely present in natural plants, has biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral. Honeysuckle, Shan Yinhua, Eucommia leaves and coffee beans are the main sources of chlorogenic acid. Studies have found that adding chlorogenic acid can relieve oxidative stress and inflammation in the intestinal tract of animals, maintain intestinal homeostasis and immune function, and protect the intestinal tract of animals. Tao health. Therefore, chlorogenic acid can be used as a potential feed additive to enhance the animal's own immunity.
Physiological function of chlorogenic acid
⑴ Antioxidant. Phenolic substances have antioxidant effects due to the presence of phenolic hydroxyl groups, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups determine the antioxidant capacity of phenolic substances. The molecular structure of chlorogenic acid contains 5 phenolic hydroxyl groups and 1 carboxyl group. The phenolic hydroxyl group easily reacts with free radicals to form hydrogen radicals with antioxidant effects. Therefore, chlorogenic acid has strong scavenging free radicals and antioxidant properties. biological function.
⑵ anti-inflammatory. Inflammation is an immune response of the body to protect itself, but excessive activation of inflammatory factors can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and even death if not treated in time. Chlorogenic acid has anti-inflammatory effect, can down-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and improve the body's resistance.
⑶ anti-virus. Chlorogenic acid has antiviral effect and has obvious inhibitory effect on influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes virus, enterovirus, H5N1 virus, adenovirus and hepatitis B virus.
⑷ antibacterial. Chlorogenic acid is the main antibacterial component of Chinese herbal medicines such as honeysuckle, mountain silver and eucommia. Chlorogenic acid is effective against Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas and Helicobacter pylori and Gram-positive including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus Bacteria have obvious inhibitory effect.
Application of Chlorogenic Acid in Livestock and Poultry Production
In large-scale pig production, due to early weaning and pathogen invasion, piglets suffer from weaning stress and intestinal homeostasis, resulting in enteritis and diarrhea. The study found that adding 1000 mg/kg of chlorogenic acid to the diet can significantly reduce the feed-to-weight ratio of weaned piglets, and the possible mechanism is that chlorogenic acid increases the activity of sucrase in the duodenal mucosa and the sodium-glucose combination in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Expression of sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) mRNA, SGLT1 is a transmembrane glucose transporter protein located in small intestinal mucosal epithelial cells and proximal convoluted tubules of nephrons, which can promote the absorption and transport of glucose . When 1000 mg/kg chlorogenic acid was added to the diet of weaned piglets, it was found that the villus height and villus-to-crypto ratio of the duodenum of the piglets in the experimental group were significantly increased, the abundance of Lactobacillus chytris in the colon was increased, and the abundance of Escherichia coli was significantly decreased. , indicating that chlorogenic acid can protect the intestinal health of pigs. In addition, chlorogenic acid can also reduce the content of malondialdehyde in the duodenum and jejunum of weaned piglets, relieve intestinal oxidative damage, and improve intestinal barrier function. Therefore, chlorogenic acid can regulate the intestinal flora of piglets, promote the digestion and absorption of nutrients, and maintain intestinal homeostasis.
Chlorogenic acid has a positive effect on sow oocyte and boar sperm development, and can be used as a protective agent for oocyte maturation and sperm. Studies have found that chlorogenic acid can improve sow oocyte maturation, development and fertilization. Compared with the control group, supplementation of chlorogenic acid in vitro can significantly promote oocyte maturation, protect oocytes from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, and at the same time increase the rate of blastocyst formation and improve the in vitro developmental ability of pig embryos.
Another report pointed out that adding 50 μmol/L chlorogenic acid and oocytes co-cultured for 44 hours before in vitro fertilization, and detected the development and quality of fertilized eggs by electroporation, and found that chlorogenic acid significantly increased the growth rate of blastocysts, Decrease apoptosis index and improve embryonic development. Chlorogenic acid can also improve the quality of frozen boar sperm. Supplementing with 100 μmol/L chlorogenic acid can increase the survival rate of boar sperm by 8% to 10% and the integrity of plasma membrane by 4% to 6%, which can replace vitamins. E as a protective agent for swine semen.
The research of chlorogenic acid in ruminants mainly focuses on its antioxidant properties and effects on the digestion and metabolism of nutrients. Some scholars explored the effect of alkali treatment on chlorogenic acid and protein in sunflower meal, and found that alkali treatment increased the content of rumen-passing protein. Compared with the control group, the intestinal protein digestibility of dairy cows in the alkali treatment group increased by 10%. It is because the chlorogenic acid quinone generated by alkali treatment reacts with the protein in the sunflower meal, which reduces the degradation of the protein by the rumen microorganisms and increases the content of the rumen-passing protein.
In addition to its direct application in ruminant diets, chlorogenic acid has also shown positive effects in milk dairy products due to its antioxidant properties. The study found that adding chlorogenic acid to Lactobacillus fermented milk increased the antioxidant activity of milk. This was because chlorogenic acid was fermented and metabolized by Lactobacillus to produce 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, and the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus increased. The release of biologically active peptides can achieve the effect of anti-oxidation. In addition, adding chlorogenic acid to the diet of fattening sheep can significantly increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in sheep serum, and significantly reduce the content of cortisol in serum.
The research on the effect of chlorogenic acid on poultry mainly focuses on improving growth performance, reducing heat stress and reducing inflammation. Adding 1000 mg/kg of chlorogenic acid to the diet of white feather broilers, the average daily gain and feed conversion rate of broilers were significantly better than those of the control group, and the addition of chlorogenic acid could significantly increase the polyunsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid content in chicken. Ratio, under heat stress conditions, dietary supplementation of chlorogenic acid can also significantly improve the oxidative stability and fatty acid content of chicken breast. The possible mechanism of chlorogenic acid alleviating heat stress is that chlorogenic acid increases the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, promotes the expression of heat shock transcription factor-1 gene, enhances autophagy, improves the body's ability to resist heat stress, and improves chicken breast. The oxidative stability of meat may be mainly derived from the antioxidant properties of chlorogenic acid.
In a waterfowl study, 1-day-old Peking ducks were inoculated with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) positive serum to establish a duck hepatitis B virus infection model, and 100 mg/kg of chlorogenic acid was orally administered daily at 7-17 days of age. , found that oral chlorogenic acid reduced the level of DHBV in duck serum, inhibited the replication of viral DNA, indicating that chlorogenic acid has anti-DHBV effect.
Chlorogenic acid has the properties of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, improving reproductive performance and protecting the intestinal health of livestock and poultry, and has become one of the research hotspots of natural plant extracts. my country's chlorogenic acid has a wide range of plant sources and high yields. As a feed additive, it has great prospects in livestock and poultry production. However, the oral effect of chlorogenic acid is not good. How to improve the utilization efficiency of chlorogenic acid by livestock and poultry, and determine the appropriate dosage of chlorogenic acid as a feed additive in livestock and poultry production, for the future chlorogenic acid will become a new type of animal husbandry. Feed additives are crucial.