16 questions about scientific feeding of sows
1. What are the factors that affect the feeding level requirements of pregnant sows ?
During pregnancy, sows are generally recommended to feed 1.8-2.7 kg per day, which is only a target figure, and the actual feeding level should be changed according to the specific conditions of individual sows . When determining feeding levels for sows, the following factors should be considered:
(1) Body size of sows; (2) Backfat condition of sows; (3) House feeding method; (4) Environment provided; (5) Feeding method; (6) Health status of pig herd; (7) Production performance level; (8) Management standards.
2. Should sows be restricted in early pregnancy after mating ?
It is advisable for young sows to be fed 1.6 kg of feed per day for 1-3 days after mating . In early pregnancy, especially in the first 24 to 48 hours after mating , if there is excess nutrition, the concentration of progesterone in plasma will decrease, which will cause embryo death. Feed levels for sows in early gestation should be based on her body condition and weight loss from the previous lactation.
3. What are the benefits of restricted feeding for sows in early pregnancy ?
In the absence of severe parasitic infection and appropriate environmental conditions, feed 1.8 to 2.7 kg of feed per day according to body condition, not less than 1.5 kg. Appropriate feed restriction during pregnancy:
(1) It can increase the survival rate of embryos and reduce the difficulty of sow delivery; (2) Reduce the crushing of newborn piglets by sows; (3) Reduce the weight loss of sows during lactation; (4) Reduce feeding costs; (5) Reduce Incidence of mastitis, prolongation of reproductive lifespan;
Excessive feed intake during pregnancy will reduce feed intake during lactation, affect milk production, and reduce litter size due to over-fat sows. Therefore, the feed intake of sows during pregnancy should be properly controlled during lactation.
4. What are the benefits of increasing sow feed intake in late pregnancy ?
When sows are below average weight and condition or average birth weight of piglets is below 1.4 kg, giving sows extra feed in late gestation can increase piglet survival. From 100 days of gestation to farrowing, sows consume 7,300 kcal of digestible energy per day to avoid consumption of body fat.
An increase in sow feed intake of 1.0 - 1.5 kg during the last week of gestation will increase piglet birth weight from 50 g to 100 g, from 108 days post gestation if sow feed intake is below 3.0 kg per day By farrowing, the backfat thickness of sows will be reduced by 1.5-2.0mm .
5. Can lean sows be given more rations after mating ?
no need. Additional heat after mating increases body heat and embryonic mortality. One month after mating, the amount of feed can be increased to improve the body condition of the sow. From 30 days after mating to delivery, the feeding amount can reach 2.5 kg per day, generally 1.8-2.0 kg per day. Care should be taken not to overfat the sow.
6. How to feed farrowing sows ?
Feed the sows ad libitum from farrowing to weaning, so that the sows can return to normal feed intake 5 days after delivery.
It is not necessary to feed bulky feeds such as wheat bran or sugar beet pulp before or immediately after calving.
Adding antibiotics to sow feed during farrowing and early lactation can reduce the incidence of hypogalactia and metritis, and improve the survival rate and weaning weight of piglets.
7. How to feed lactating sows ?
The feeding amount of lactating sows should be reduced (0-2.0 kg ) on the first day of delivery , and then increased by 0.5 kg per day, so that the sows can fully recover their feed intake on the 7th day after delivery , and the sows should eat freely until weaning. Lactating sows generally drink about 45 liters of water per day, and the water flow rate of the drinking fountain should not be less than 1.5 liters / minute.
8. Why should we increase the feed intake of lactating sows ?
The daily feed intake of lactating sows is approximately 2.0kg + 0.5kg × the number of piglets. Low feed or nutrient intake of sows during lactation will consume fat and protein stored in the body, resulting in significant weight loss of sows, prolonged interval from weaning to conception, reduced lactation, reduced vitality and survival rate of piglets, and reduced weaning weight , the subsequent reproductive performance is reduced, and the reproductive lifespan is shortened.
9. How to increase the feed intake of lactating sows ?
Reduce the feed intake of sows during pregnancy.
From the day of farrowing, feed the lactating sows a sufficient amount of fresh feed every day.
The temperature in the farrowing room is maintained at about 18-20 ℃, the temperature is lower, and the sows consume more feed .
Let the sows eat wet mix or pellet feed freely, and clean the trough regularly.
Provide sufficient drinking water for sows, and the water flow rate of the drinking fountain is 1.5 liters/minute.
10. What are the benefits of adding fat to sow rations during late gestation and lactation ?
Increase fat reserves in piglets.
Increase milk production and milk fat content of sows.
Increase the survival rate of piglets and reduce the death of piglets before weaning due to lack of energy.
Reduce the consumption of sow body tissue and improve the reproductive performance of sows.
11. Is there any benefit in feeding high protein / lysine diets during lactation to first litter sows ?
Yes. Significant weight loss and reduced feed intake in sows during lactation tends to reduce reseating ability, especially for first litter sows. Studies have shown that dietary lysine levels higher than 1.00 % for lactating sows can help eliminate some of the adverse effects of first litter sows.
12. What is the lysine requirement for lactating sows ?
When sows have 8 or less litters , the lysine requirement is 35-40 g/day; for sows producing 10 or more piglets, the lysine requirement is 55 g/day .
13. Is it normal for sows to experience constipation in the late pregnancy and the first few days after delivery ? How to avoid it ?
Since sows lose a lot of body fluids when they give birth, it takes several days from birth to restore normal water and nutrient balance. Generally speaking, if sows are given adequate water and feed in the first few days after farrowing, constipation will not usually occur during the rest of lactation. In late pregnancy and early lactation, if constipation persists, you can add laxatives, high-fiber substances ( such as wheat bran ) to the diet , or feed green and juicy feed.
14. Can a sow continue to breastfeed other light weight piglets after the litter is weaned ?
able. Under normal management conditions, a sow can successfully nurse its adopted piglets, assuming a few more days of suckling and a normal body condition. This adoption process is quite feasible when piglets are weaned in batches, but not followed by an all-in-all-out system. Care should be taken to ensure successful cross-fostering. Cross-lactation is easy to succeed by allowing the sow's milk to accumulate in the mammary glands for a few hours and then immediately allowing the sow to nurse the piglets to be nursed.
15. How does the temperature of the farrowing room affect the feed intake of lactating sows ?
The temperature in the farrowing room is maintained at about 18-20 °C, which is conducive to the feed intake of sows. If it exceeds 18 °C, for every 1 ° C increase , the daily feed intake of each sow will be reduced by 100 grams. It is estimated that an extra 1 kg of feed per day during lactation reduces the sow's weight loss by 7 kg throughout lactation . The temperature in the farrowing room is lower, the sows consume more feed, the body weight loss is small, and the weaned piglets are heavier. Therefore, if the sow is to consume more feed, the sow should be kept in a cooler environment.
16. When the temperature of the sow pen is low, how to adjust the feeding management ?
18-20 ℃ is the suitable temperature range for sows. If the temperature of the sows' pen is low, a high feed level is required, otherwise it will lead to weight loss. At the same time, there is an interactive relationship between the body condition of sows and the temperature of the pen . Lean sows have thinner insulation than fat sows, and their ability to adjust to low temperature is poor. Therefore, lean sows have lower feed requirements at lower temperatures. higher. Grouping sows and providing bedding can mitigate the negative effects of low temperatures.