how to mix iv antibiotics
For effective injection and administration, it is very helpful to know the basic anatomy of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, the selection of injection needles, the selection of injection equipment, and the restraint of pigs (Figure 1). Immune failure caused by norms, skin abscesses, poor treatment effect, etc., how can injections be effective? Today, let's talk about pig injection.
skin diagramFrom top to bottom, the epidermis, dermis (intra-injection), subcutaneous tissue and fat (subcutaneous injection), and muscle layer (intramuscular injection)1. Pig restraint and injection aids1. Stabilizer: It is used for the restraint of pigs. The injection can only be carried out when the restraint is exact.2. Marking crayon: used to distinguish between injected and uninjected individuals3. Injection tube: The length is 100 cm. It can be operated by one person, which is labor-saving and convenient. It is used for large pigs that cannot be fully restrained. It is used as a soft link between the needle and the syringe. People move with the pig, and the injection is reliable. The needle is not easy to break. The choice of syringe and needle2-1 Ordinary syringe: used for health care or treatment of pigs2-1-1. Disposable plastic syringe: 1ml, 2ml, 5ml, 10ml, 20ml2-1-2, glass fiber reinforced plastic or stainless steel material: commonly used 20, 50 ml (in special cases, use 10 ml, 100 ml or other specifications)2-2 continuous syringes: used for pig health care or vaccine injection. The injection volume of pigs is large. It is recommended to use 1-5 ml to adjust.Choice of 2-3 needlesPiglets under 30 catties: 9-15 gauge nylon needles or stainless steel needles30-200 catties medium and large pig: 12*25 nylon needle or stainless steel needleBoar or sow: 16*38 gauge nylon needle or stainless steel needle3. Precautions for the use of syringes and needles:1: One syringe only injects one drug, some drugs cannot be combined and mixed, and there are incompatibility.2: Wipe the top of the medicine bottle with alcohol cotton balls and medical alcohol before drawing the medicine (vaccine).3: Reusable syringes should be cleaned and disinfected when not in use.4: Injection needles used by sick or weak pigs cannot be used in healthy pigs.5: Syringes used in the isolation house cannot be brought back to the production area for use.6: Do not use if the needle tip is barbed or the needle falls to the ground.7: Do not clean the needle with your fingers and clothes, use a clean cotton ball and disinfectant alcohol to wipe it.4. The injection site of pigs
(1) Subcutaneous injection: For piglets, the ideal subcutaneous injection site is under the skin fold of the inner thigh, or subcutaneously behind the scapula (use a 9*15 needle). For growing pigs or adult pigs, the ideal injection site is 25-75 cm behind the ear at the base of the ear, using a 12*25 gauge needle at a 45° angle.(2) Intravenous injection: There are 3 sites where the drug can be injected directly into the bloodstream: the ear vein, the jugular vein, the anterior vena cava, or the aorta leaving the heart.The ear vein is the most commonly used method of injection, especially for the administration of anesthesia or for occasional intravenous infusion of drugs. Clean the skin on the outside of the ear with an alcohol swab (this also dilates the veins), then pinch the base of the ear to fill the vein, and insert the needle horizontally with a suitable needle. The pig's maxilla should be tied with a wire restraint or rope or injected with a sedative for adequate restraint before the operation can be carried out.(3) Intramuscular injection: The recommended intramuscular injection site for weaned growing pigs and fattening pigs is 70mm behind the ear base. Pre-weaning piglets are recommended to inject in the thigh area of the hind legs as there really isn't much muscle in the neck of piglets. However, this site is not recommended for injection in growing and finishing pigs, as abscess formation is likely.5. Advocate healthy pork and pay attention to the withdrawal period of antibiotics
Withholding period refers to the time between the last administration and the residual drug concentration in muscle, liver, kidney, fat or skin equal to or lower than the maximum allowable residual period in the carcass. For an accurate withdrawal period, it is necessary to refer to the latest instructions for the withdrawal period of the relevant drug. For products that do not specify a withdrawal period, the standard withdrawal period of 28 days is recommended.